Caffeine...has been shown to be chemopreventive in cancer

Caffeine...has been shown to be chemopreventive in cancer

Сообщение Akvinat » Вс май 15, 2011 4:43 am

Caffeine promotes UVB-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes without complete DNA repair

Weinong Han,
Mei Ming and
Yu-Ying He*
In response to UVB damage, keratinocytes undergo apoptosis to eliminate damaged cells, thereby preventing tumorigenic transformation. Caffeine, the most widely consumed psychoactive substance, produces complex pharmacological actions; it has been shown to be chemopreventive in non-melamona skin cancer in humans and in mice through increasing apoptosis. Here we have investigated the molecular and cellular mechanisms in the pro-apoptotic effect of caffeine on UVB-irradiated human HaCaT keratinocytes. Pretreatment with caffeine increased UVB-induced apoptosis in HaCaT cells. Caffeine blocked UVB-induced Chk1 phosphorylation. In addition, similar to the effect of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, caffeine also inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and up-regulation of COX-2, two critical oncogenic pathways in skin tumorigenesis. However, phosphorylation of EGFR or ERK was unaffected. Inhibiting ATR pathways by siRNA targeting ATR had little effect on UVB-induced apoptosis or AKT activation, indicating that the inhibitory effect of caffeine on apoptosis and the AKT pathway does not require the ATR pathway. Inhibiting AKT by caffeine blocked UVB-induced COX-2 up-regulation. Expression of constitutively active AKT that was not inhibited by caffeine was found to protect cells from caffeine-promoted apoptosis post-UVB irradiation, indicating that AKT is an essential inhibitory target for caffeine to promote apoptosis. Caffeine specifically sensitized cells with unrepaired DNA damage to UVB-induced apoptosis. These findings indicate that in HaCaT keratinocytes, inhibiting the AKT/COX-2 pathways through an ATR-independent pathway is a critical molecular mechanism by which caffeine promotes UVB-induced apoptosis of unrepaired keratinocytes for elimination.

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